HS2 questions point to broader reckoning for ‘levelling up’, and Rishi Sunak

The phrase “levelling up” entered the British lexicon through the political match of pique of the 2019 common election. It was a political pledge created by and for former prime minister Boris Johnson as he seized on the ferment stoked by the Brexit marketing campaign. 

After all, the dedication to tackling regional disparity helped Johnson’s authorities safe a landslide victory on the 2019 election, profitable historically Labour-held seats within the north of England and the midlands. However the slogan was, from the beginning, intentionally slippery — meant to subvert anti-Westminster emotions for Boris Johnson’s personal political ends.

Actually, levelling up was Johnsonianism distilled: a catchy slogan, just a few billion quid and a monument to level to on the finish of all of it. It meant high-spending, headline-grabbing infrastructure initiatives. This side of Johnson’s political nature was summed up neatly by Dominic Cummings in an interview for the New York Magazine final yr: “The one factor he was actually fascinated by — genuinely enthusiastic about — was taking a look at maps. The place might he order the constructing of issues?”.

In brief: so long as shovels had been within the floor, Johnson thought he was profitable. The bidding struggle incited by the levelling up venture would see communities pitted in opposition to one another, pining for Johnson’s consideration. The PM would then tour the nation, pointing to the bodily markers of his success. His legacy can be writ in stone throughout Britain’s excessive streets. “Thanks Boris”, Britain would collectively bay.


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However, bluster apart, the Conservative social gathering’s political accountability in the case of “levelling up” remained profound. Lots of Johnson’s converts in 2019 positioned their belief within the Conservatives for the primary time and, as PM due to this fact, Johnson wanted to make actual beneficial properties to make sure such voters didn’t swing again to Starmer’s Labour. Thus, simply as Brexit was declared “finished” in 2020, levelling up was newly bought as Johnson’s “defining mission”. 

Nonetheless, in mid-2022, questions arose over how “levelling up” would survive the upending of its prime patron. And the venture emerged as a key speaking level throughout final summer season’s Conservative management contest. 

It was clear that Liz Truss’ small state and low tax imaginative and prescient was failing to match the political vitality Johnson had piled into the scheme; however Rishi Sunak’s fiscal conscientiousness, likewise, had been considered as a roadblock to the venture whereas on the Treasury. (The video of the soon-to-be runner-up boasting about how he had fiddled funding formulation to take cash out of “disadvantaged city areas” didn’t assist his case).

On this approach, whereas the very thought of big-spending infrastructure initiatives was central to Johnsonianism, “levelling up” — as a high-spending creed — appeared to jar with Sunak’s most elementary political instincts. 

It’s maybe unsurprising, due to this fact, that the so-called “levelling up agenda” has not featured prominently throughout Sunak’s premiership. Spiralling crises round industrial relations, public companies and unlawful migration have additionally squandered a lot of the PM’s political vitality.

However this isn’t to say that Sunak has escaped criticism for failing to make strides on regional disparity. Certainly, after the final spherical of levelling up funding in January, evaluation discovered that giant sums of the headline £2.1 billion funding bundle had been going to areas with comparatively low ranges of deprivation. It additionally highlighted that, of the £1.9 billion of spending that might be linked to particular person constituencies, £1.2 billion — round 63 per cent — had gone to seats held by Conservative MPs.

It appeared to reveal, (1), levelling up as a mere electoral gambit and, (2), Sunak’s abjuration on the acknowledged imaginative and prescient of his predecessor-but-one. Mix this with tales that Conservative MPs have been instructed to make use of phrases comparable to “stepping up”, “gauging up” or “enhancing communities” in lieu of “levelling up”, and Sunak himself appears removed from taken by the venture. 

With this debate rumbling on within the background, the report which appeared within the Unbiased this week, suggesting HS2’s second leg from Birmingham to Manchester might be shelved, begs some necessary questions. Certainly, it comes after the federal government was criticised for quietly slipping out the information that work on the leg between Birmingham and Crewe was being placed on maintain in March. 

As for the federal government’s line on the report, Dwelling Workplace minister Chris Philp insisted this morning that “the levelling up agenda is steaming forward”. However he conspicuously refused to commit his authorities to HS2’s northern leg, considered by many as integral to the venture.

To make sure: the federal government’s flagship high-speed rail venture predates the “levelling up” slogan. Actually, it was in 2012 that the then-transport secretary Justine Greening first introduced Britain was to have a brand new high-speed rail community composed of a Y-shape with stations in London, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield and the East Midlands.

It was additionally the central part of former chancellor George Osborne’s Northern powerhouse thought. Osborne mentioned in 2014: “The fact is that HS2 is an important funding. It’s important capability and it’ll change the financial geography of the nation. It should imply that London and Manchester are simply an hour aside”.

“We’ve finished lots — however we should do far more to attach our northern cities”.

After all, Osborne’s “Northern powerhouse” venture is in essence the identical as that which drives the levelling up agenda (minus among the Johnsonian rhetoric). Actually, lately, HS2 has turn into symbolic of what the federal government’s levelling-up agenda might imply in observe — with its numerous cutbacks and delays interpreted in flip as microcosmic indications of the imaginative and prescient’s broader failure. 

Right this moment, George Osborne is the host of a brand new political podcast with Ed Balls, and he used his new centrist soapbox to name the reported plans to axe HS2’s northern leg a “mistake” and a “actual, actual tragedy”. 

It additionally appears to be a transparent diving line with Labour, with shadow transport secretary Louise Haigh explaining: “Labour will name time on 13 years of failure, and ship the infrastructure match for the century forward”.

Certainly, the Unbiased’s revelations on HS2 are available the identical week new shadow levelling up secretary Angela Rayner branded the Conservative model of levelling up a “sham and a rip-off” in a speech to the Trades Union Congress (TUC) convention in Liverpool. 

Rayner mentioned: “The masks has slipped, and the general public has seen the reality – heat phrases and politically pushed handouts gained’t contact the edges. An empty slogan gained’t pay first rate wages. False guarantees gained’t construct safe houses. And a sound chew gained’t empower communities”.

Underneath Keir’s Starmer management, Labour has sought to embrace the central message of the levelling up agenda. Sir Keir has, for instance, introduced plans for a brand new “take again management”, meant to present new powers to communities; and the social gathering’s Inexperienced Prosperity Plan has been heralded as a approach of spreading alternative all through the nation on renewables.

Furthermore, Rayner spent Monday making an attempt to tie the levelling up ultimate to Labour’s pitch on staff rights, which she specialised in in her outdated temporary as shadow secretary of state for the way forward for work. She mentioned: “Labour has a complete plan to create good jobs throughout the whole nation and lift dwelling requirements for all by means of our New Deal for Working Folks”.

The issue for Sunak, due to this fact, is that the levelling up slogan stays salient and therefore able to be stolen by Labour. However he has, in essence, vacated the territory based by his predecessor-but-one — permitting the political vitality the Conservative Social gathering stoked and did not harness to stream into different channels. 

So whereas Johnson was capable of make levelling up central to his political model, for Sunak, it’s quick changing into a vulnerability.

And with HS2 solely ever raised within the media when stories flow into that it’s being scaled again, Labour has a bodily marker (or lack thereof) of perceived Conservative failure: a full 13 years of it.